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Listed by Year of Publication

Moral Distress, Burnout, Turnover Intention, and Coping Strategies among Korean Nurses during the Late Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed-Method Study

Lee, J.J., Ji, H., Lee, S., Lee, S.E., & Squires, A. (2024). Moral distress, burnout, turnover intention, and coping strategies among Korean nurses during the late stage of the COVID-19 pandemic: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Nursing Management.

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the difficulties nurses face, resulting in higher turnover rates and workforce shortages. This study investigated the relationships between nurses’ moral distress, burnout, and turnover intention during the last stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also explored the coping strategies nurses use to mitigate moral distress. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, this study analyzed data from 307 nurses caring for patients with COVID-19 in acute care hospitals through an online survey conducted in November 2022. Our data analysis encompassed quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics and path analysis, using a generalized structural equation model. For the qualitative aspect, we examined open-ended responses from 246 nurses using inductive content analysis. The quantitative findings revealed that nurses’ moral distress had a significant direct effect on turnover intention. In addition, burnout significantly mediated the relationship between moral distress and turnover intention. Qualitative analyses contextualized the relationships uncovered in the quantitative analyses. The qualitative analysis identified various positive and negative coping strategies. Positive strategies included a commitment to minimize COVID-19 transmission risks, adopting a holistic approach amidst the challenges posed by the pandemic, voicing concerns for patient safety, engaging in continuous learning, and prioritizing self-care. Conversely, negative strategies involved adopting avoidance behaviors stemming from feelings of powerlessness and adopting a passive approach to one’s role. Notably, some participants shifted from positive to negative coping strategies because of institutional barriers and challenges. The findings underscore the importance for hospital administrators and nurse managers to acknowledge the impact of the pandemic-related challenges encountered by nurses and recognize the link among moral distress, burnout, and turnover intention. It highlights the essential role of organizational and managerial support in fostering effective coping strategies among nurses to address moral distress.

Global Nursing & Midwifery Perspectives of Working During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Preliminary Findings. 

Global Consortium of Nursing & Midwifery Studies. (2024). Global nursing & midwifery perspectives of working during the COVID-19 pandemic: Preliminary findings.

This report was generated for the PEPFAR Nursing Leadership Initiative Resource Fair in Geneva, Switzerland. It presents preliminary findings from our study on the experiences of frontline nurses and midwives during the intra- and post-pandemic phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. To access the report, please click here.

Perspectives of Frontline Nurses Working in South Korea during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Combined Method of Text Network Analysis and Summative Content Analysis

Lee, S., Lee, T., Lee, E.S. (2023). Perspectives of Frontline Nurses Working in South Korea during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Combined Method of Text Network Analysis and Summative Content Analysis. J Korean Academic Nursing, 53(6): 584.

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the perspectives of frontline nurses working during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: An online qualitative study was conducted using a pragmatic approach. The data were collected in August 2021. Registered Korean nurses who provided direct nursing care to patients with confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for this study. An online survey was used to gather free-text data, which were then analyzed using machine-based network analysis and summative content analysis. Results: The analysis examined the responses of 126 participants and led to the identification of six prominent themes. These themes were further classified into three distinct levels: personal, task, and organizational. The identified themes are as follows: “collapse of personal life,” “being overwhelmed by the numerous roles required,” “personal protective equipment was sufficiently provided, but that is not enough,” “changes in interprofessional collaboration,” “inappropriate workforce management,” and “diverted allocation of healthcare services and resources.” Conclusion: Our findings highlight areas for improvement in resources, systems, and policies to enhance preparedness for future pandemics.

Experience of the U-Nursing LatAm Team in the Research Entitled “Nurses Working During the COVID-19 Pandemic" (ENTRADUP)

Casales-Hernández, M. G., Jiménez-Sánchez, J., Dixon, P. A., Rodríguez-López, J. I., & Squires, A.. (2023). EXPERIENCE OF THE U-NURSING LATAM TEAM IN THE RESEARCH ENTITLED “NURSES WORKING DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC (ENTRADUP)”. Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem, 32, e2023E002.

In nearly all of Latin America, preparation for the COVID-19 pandemic was late and insufficient. As front-line health care workers caring for COVID-19 patients, nurses in Latin America are able to identify critical changes following the pandemic. The LatAm research team of the GCNMS is bridging an important gap in research to study nursing during the pandemic in Latin America, with wide-reaching implications for low- and middle-income countries.

“Should I stay or should I go?” Nurses' perspectives about working during the Covid-19 pandemic's first wave in the United States: A summative content analysis combined with topic modeling

International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2022; 131: 104256

Commissioned initially by the US National Academy of Medicine as part of the Future of Nursing 2020-2030 Consensus Study to document the early effects of the pandemic on the nursing workforce, the study also tested the methods the consortium would use for future research. Co-authors included nurses practicing on the frontlines during 2020, health services researchers, and a computational linguist.

Conference Presentations


Update coming soon!


Academy Health's Annual Research Meeting, Washington, DC (June)

XVII Pan American Nursing Research Colloquium, Miami, FL (November)

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